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An element is a pure substance. An intensive property I one that is true regardless of the quantity present. Burning is a chemical reaction in which a material reacts with oxygen. STUDY. Matter is composed of particles. Chemical properties and reactions changes diagram quizlet chemistry balance equation stoichiometric balancing equations exam 2 notes flashcards balanced definition tessshlo reaction types predicting products voary law of conservation mass unit 6 formulas chapter 11 . More than 50 million students study with Quizlet each month because it’s the leading education and flashcard app that makes studying languages, history, vocab and science simple and effective. Easily damaged or disrupted; fragile: a brittle friendship. Persons who have more experience and who take more precautions will generally record with less error. tensile strength. tlest 1. a. Semiconductors. The Basic unit of a chemical element (made up of protons, neutrons and electrons) Term. See Synonyms at fragile. Created by. I've distilled the important information down to the most vital concepts and presented them in the most visual, engaging and memorable ways possible. A material maybe described as having high strength or low strength. They can be both homogeneous or heterogeneous. Created. Modern Chemistry Chapter 8 3 Review Answers Recognizing the artifice ways to get this ebook modern chemistry chapter 8 3 review answers is additionally useful. N/A. According to the Law of conservation of energy, energy can be neither created nor destroyed but can change from one form to another without changing the overall amount of energy present. Which of the following is not a property of metals? Periods B. The more sensitive and precise the instrument is, the lower the amount of error, An instrument is only as good as the person using it. Answer. Clear is not a color. Top Answer. Many steels become … Lustrous or dull are terms that describe lustour. Matter comes in a variety of forms, and phases. Lacking … Need the definition of Brittleness? Importantly, this includes organic reaction mechanisms! Synonym Discussion of brittle. Many steels become … A chemical property characterizes how a substance reacts or does not react with another substance to produce something completely new. If it can only be scratched by diamond it is hard. Heat always flows from a body at higher temperature to a body of lower temperature. Brittle materials absorb relatively little energy prior to fracture, even those of high strength. Mass. The vertical columns of the periodic table are called. The spectral lines are … Figure 12.9 shows the absorption spectrum. A non-metal is an element that varies in color, and varies in phase at room temperature. Gravity. Brittle fracture occurs suddenly and catastrophically without any warning. A material is brittle if, when subjected to stress, it breaks with little elastic deformation and without significant plastic deformation.Brittle materials absorb relatively little energy prior to fracture, even those of high strength.Breaking is often accompanied by a snapping sound. A period is. A objects weight is affected by gravity. Spell. How compact the substance is. Materials with this property have elastic proportionality in stress and strain. Ductility definition, the capacity to undergo a change of physical form without breaking; malleability or flexibility: High ductility and very low hardness made gold … Temperature, pressure, or location does not affect an objects mass. For Higher Chemistry, revise the ways that elements are held together and the attractive forces that determine the chemical properties of substances. Breaking is often accompanied by a snapping sound. There are 2000llbs in a ton, but there are 16 ounces in a pound. All measuring instruments have error. YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE... 47. Odor is an observation of smell. You need to understand convergence, production of UV, vis, IR, excitation, concentric energy levels and be able to draw the line spectra. Start studying >> CHEMISTRY 2<<. In this activity, you will check your knowledge of the material classification in materials science, as presented in the lesson. A non mental is usually, dull, brittle, and tends to gain electrons during chemical reactions. Conclusion. Types: flakiness. There are fractures (e.g. A pure form of matter is called a substance. Study 32 Terms Unit 2 Chemistry Flashcards Quizlet. The objective of hydraulic fracturing is to design/execute a fracture treatment that achieves the desired fracture characteristics (length & conductivity) to maximize a wells production rate/reserves, creating a high-permeability flow channel towards the wellbore in the formation. Meaning of brittleness. Some chemical properties include: hydrogen gas will burn in hair, nitrogen gas will not burn in air, solid magnesium metal will burn in carbon dioxide, wood will not burn in carbon dioxide, cider will ferment, water will not ferment, iron will oxidize to rust and stainless steel will not oxidize. Brittle: Brittleness is affected by pressure (or stress). Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Pressure and locations affect melting and boiling points. Brittleness definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. A gas will take the shape of its container. A material is brittle if it is liable to fracture when subjected to stress. It is not a substance because not all samples are alike. History Of The Atomic Model Quizlet Global History Blog . 2. a. Luster. The branch of chemistry which deals with applying the theories of physics to the study of reactions and properties of matter. Write Out The Chemical Equation For Photosynthesis Png. A material is brittle if, when subjected to stress, it breaks without significant deformation (strain). Key Concepts: Terms in this set (24) On known elements are organized into a chart known as the. Temperature does not measure heat. Some intensive properties include density melting and boiling point, heats of fusion and vaporization, specific heat, phase at room temperature, crystalline shape, and reactivity. Chemistry Mid-Term Exam. measure of how much tension a material can withstand before breaking. 2015-06-18 14:28:54 2015-06-18 14:28:54. measures materials tendency to shatter upon impact. Likely to break, snap, or crack, as when subjected to pressure: brittle bones. Malleability refers to the ability of a material to be hammered or rolled into a shape. As heat is absorbed or released by a sample of matter the samples thermal energy is either increased or decreased. Write Out The Chemical Equation For Photosynthesis Png . the weight of a substance . Patrick_Camp. n the trait of being firm but easily broken. One problem with this system is smaller or larger increments are not standard. Sign up here. Chemistry Chapter 1. Definition of brittleness. Luster is a term for shininess. Although it is not a true phase of matter, aqueous substances behave as a single phase of matter. A pure substances heat of fusion is the amount of heat needed to exactly melt a certain mass of that substance. Ductility is the physical property of a material associated with the ability to be hammered thin or stretched into wire without breaking.A ductile substance can be drawn into a wire. 95 terms. Creep Fracture, A fracture where the material separates into two or more piece…, A fracture where the material undergoes repetitive cyclic stre…, A fracture where plastic deformation occurs due to elevated te…, high sugar concentration, homogenous, very saturated... PEANUT…, low sugar concentration, contains many small crystals...fudge,…. Materials can be named as ductile materials or brittle materials based on their response to an applied stress on them. Brittle materials absorb relatively little energy prior to fracture, even those of high strength. READ Structural Steel Beam Span Tables Australia. Test. Ionization energy is the energy needed to remove an atoms most loosely held electron. Examples. Breaking Bad The Periodic Table Of Elements Breaking Bad. 60 Atomic Number Definition Quizlet 7 Android Educational Apps That Help Improve Study Performance Positive Reviews Quizlet Learn Languages Vocab With Flashcards READ Red Rocks Seating Map. Chemistry. Dat General Chemistry Mike S Chapter 4 Periodic … And made of different substances. Volume. How to use ductile in a sentence. Brittle materials include most ceramics and glasses and some polymers, such as PMMA and polystyrene. Brittleness describes the property of a material that fractures when subjected to stress but has a little tendency to deform before rupture. Amorphous solids are solids that melt over a range of temperatures. OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR. Semiconductors are employed in the manufacture of various kinds of electronic devices, including diodes, transistors, and integrated circuits. When recording a measurement you write down all of the known digits and one estimated digit. Hardness refers to the scratchability of a material. Total Cards. Definition - What does Brittleness mean? A material is described as brittle if it can be broken when struck or rolled. A material is brittle when it is stressed and does not deform, but breaks. Basic Chemistry Definitions. STUDY. All substances are homogeneous forms of matter in that each sample of pure substance has a uniform composition, and as such all sub samples will have the same composition. Flashcards. A mixture is a form of matter that is composed of two or more elements, two or more compounds, or a mixture of elements and compounds. Permanent change that occurs due to the growth of fractures an…, cA band in which there are many parallel or subparallel fractu…, any thing that takes up space and has mass, a characteristic that can be observed or measured without chan…, the ability of a substance to react with other substances and…, A genetic disorder that prevent the body from building strong…, by a defective gene, that produces type 1 collagen, a protein…, Muscles to break easily, without an injury, Soft bones ... Bones that fracture easily ... Bones that are not for…, stresses must exceed a critical valure of rock strength, The ability of a rock or sediment to let fluids pass through i…, opening perpendicular to fracture surface joints, A female child, Susan M, had been born after a normal pregnanc…, Point mutation from glycine to cysteine ... Sequence changes from…, Since only one of the two copies of ColA1 gene are mutated, on…, -Gly, X, Y-... Glycine is in centre of triple helix. True solids will melt at a single specific temperature. b. A mixture is heterogeneous because the compounds are not uniformly distributed. Likely to break, snap, or crack, as when subjected to pressure: brittle bones. Brittleness refers to a material's ability to break when struck or rolled. Temperature, pressure, and location do affect an objects density. S.I prefixes are prefixes that can be used with SI base units, SI derived units and non SI metric units to form new units that are greater than or less than the original units by some multiple or submultiple of 10. Everything in the universe Is either a form of matter or energy. Native Korean Numbers. brittle fracture), which occur under specific conditions without warning and can cause major damage to materials. Matter is anything that has a mass and a volume. Brittle materials are characterized by little deformation, poor capacity to resist impact and vibration of load, high compressive strength, and low tensile strength. You have remained in right site to begin getting this info. Chemistry. Reactions And Chemical Equations Prms 8th Grade Science. Learn. Lustrous or dull are terms that describe lustour. This fracture absorbs relatively little energy, even in materials of high strength, and usually makes a snapping sound. According to the Law of conservation of matter, matter can neither be created or destroyed and thus the total amount of mass of a system must remain constant. A second problem is with this system is that the pound unit is dependent on the earth's gravitational filed, which is not always constant/. Some physical properties include, phase at room temperature, melting and boiling temperature, density, solubility, color, texture, and mass. All pure substances melt and boil at a specific temperature. 02/14/2013. Heat or electricial materials can be described as a good conductor or electricity as a poor conductor of heat an electricity. Matter can change form or phase. PLAY. There are currently over 100 known elements. A material is described as brittle if it can be broken when struck or rolled. This is a consequence of the spontaneous and rapid crack propagation. 13. pressure. Brittleness is the degree of susceptibility to breaking as a result of that kind of stress, which would cause a more flexible material to bend. Brittleness is not a chemical property but a physical property. PLAY. Scientists try to limit error as much as possible. In a homogeneous mixture all of the components are uniformly distributed. Physical states. of energy levels increase decreases across periods as increased no. A compound cannot be decomposed by physical means but can be by chemical. Clear, translucent, cloudy, and opaque are terms that can describe clarity. Phase. having or breaking into thin crisp flakes. Heat is able to move through a material as a result of the motion of the materials particles. A material is described as malleable if it can be hammered or rolled into a shape. … Each element has a unique number of protons in its atom. What is brittleness? A gas is a sample of matter that has no definite shape or volume. Refers to a materials ability to withstand being crushed or pulled apart when weight is applied. The system of measurements that is in everyday use in the United States is based off the Imperial system of measurement. This is a mechanical property of a material manifested by failure without undergoing any deformation on application of stress. Brittle materials absorb relatively little energy prior to fracture, even those of high strength. Definition of brittleness in the Definitions.net dictionary. Kathryn_Vogel2. Easily damaged or disrupted; fragile: a brittle friendship. o Science distinguishes itself from other ways of knowing through use of empirical standards, logical arguments, and skeptical review. 0. That is, it has little tendency to deform (or strain) before fracture. Luster is a term for shininess. PLAY. Periodic Table Definition Chemistry Quizlet Written By MacPride Saturday, February 23, 2019 Add Comment Edit. Match. 40 terms . Heat is a form of energy that flows between two samples of matter at different temperatures. Fresh Periodic Table Trends Quizlet Tablepriodic Priodic. C. The vertical columns of the Parriott a table are called A. A metalloid is an element that has both metallic and non-metallic properties. A fracture is the separation of an object or material into two or more pieces under the action of stress. They are made off all the same uniform substance. Compounds with the same formula but differently arranged struc…, 4. Chemistry Balance Chemical Equation Diagram Quizlet. Groups . hannah tucker uva kjcarter magdalenacarratala Saint Martins Church photos emily battle charleston wv vapeart storyteller ogemaw county mi epson blæk patroner yohan blake watch botina bracol a milk enema followed by hot blowjobs caregeo SnowflakeofJustice dry pt tomoyuki higuchi kode pos tembalang kvemo chala cc0 photos … What does brittleness mean? A liquid will take the shape of its container. An element is a form of matter that cannot be decomposed by ordinary chemical or physical means. Anything that has mass and volume (living or non living) It can be described by two kinds of properties: Chemical and physical. Potential Energy is stored in a sample of matter by the relative positions of the particles that compose the sample. Brittleness is a property of metals which states that they do not deform under load but suddenly break. Brittle definition is - easily broken, cracked, or snapped. b. Freebase (5.00 / 1 vote) Rate this definition: Brittleness. Chemistry. Plasma is a phase of matter that consists of ionized gases and readily exists in stars. The terms light and dark may also be used to further describe color. Materials Science: Identification Exercise. Sino-Korean Numbers. Brittleness definition: the quality of being brittle | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples Hyphenated color combinations may be used. Texture is a tactile observation of how the surface of something feels or would appear to feel. A horizontal row of elements in the periodic table. More related links. 19 terms. 55 terms. definition; the size of an atom, measured from the centre of the nucleus to boundary of it's electrons trend; increases going down groups as no. How to use brittle in a sentence. tlest 1. a. Learn brittleness with free interactive flashcards. Chm 105 Chapter 3 Molecules Compounds And Chemical Equations. Brittle Deformation Structures: Faults, A zone in which loss of cohesion and slip occurs on several fa…, A zone in which mesoscopic cohesion is not lost, but in which…, Fault where the hanging wall is lowered or downthrown relative…, LEC M2 L3: Introduction to Brittle Fracturing, about the upper 10km is primarily brittle, the permanent change in solid material due to growth of fractu…, a band of finite width in which displacement is partitioned am…, a single surface on which movement occurs specifically by brit…, The measure of a material's resistance to deformation by surfa…, The ratio of stress to strain when deformation is totally elas…, Deformation that is nonpermanent—that is, totally recovered up…, Fracture that occurs by rapid crack propagation and without ap…, Chapter 10 (Kinematics and paleostress in the brittle regime), are a set of extension fractures that occur at a high angle to…, are a set of subsidiary fractures showing thrust motion obliqu…, are a set of subsidiary fractures showing low-angle normal or…, Comprise extension fractures (?) S Quizlet Com 46974138 … 61 terms. chris_brosnine. Elasticity refers to a deformed materials ability to recover its shape and size. Surfaces a…, The line representing the intersection of the fracture plane w…, The line separating the rock that has been fractured from the…, an animal hunted as food by another; someone or something that…, Brittle bone disease + disabled pp love story. Balanced Equation Definition Chemistry Quizlet Tessshlo. the consistency of … Matter 2. A physical property characterizes any observation that can be made or determined without changing the substance into something new. MCAT | Mometrix Comprehensive Guide. When a substance is dissolved in water it is often said to be aqueous phase. Mometrix. It also is usually a poor conductor of electricity and heat. Brittleness. Synonym Discussion of ductile. b. If it can be scratched by quartz it is medium hard. Description. Temperature, pressure, or location does affect an objects volume. They lack toughness. These digits are called significant figures. 21 terms. Energy is the ability to do work which means to move a sample of matter through the application of a force, energy comes in a variety of forms and in two states. Breaking is often accompanied by a snapping sound. Their brittle point is the highest … The fracture properties and brittleness index of rocks are shown in Fig. Additional Chemistry Flashcards . If no color is present,, use the term colorless. A material is brittle if, when subjected to stress, it breaks with little elastic deformation and without significant plastic deformation. STUDY. Sour, bitter,sweet, and salty are some terms that are used to describe taste. Specimens of such materials fracture without appreciable material yielding. Subject. Look it up now! A solid is a sample of matter that has a definite shape and a definite volume. A brittle material often makes a snap or pop when it breaks. Chemistry Glossary (Terms and Definition) Unit 2. Choose from 327 different sets of brittleness flashcards on Quizlet. 5.1.1B. Liquid Solid Gas. CHemisty first quarter. Quizlet is the easiest way to practice and master what you’re learning. Heat or electricial materials can be described as a good conductor or electricity as a poor conductor of heat an electricity. Chemical Equations And Etc Flashcards Quizlet. Materials with this property have elastic proportionality in stress and strain. Asked by Wiki User. A substance may be described as soluble or insoluble when mixed into a second substance. The metals are found on the left and the center of the periodic table. o Science knowledge has a history that includes the refinement of, and changes to, theories, ideas, and beliefs over time. Create your own flashcards and study sets or choose from millions created by other students — it’s up to you. Cards Return to Set Details. The non-metal are found in the upper right corner of the periodic table. The perfect white light is a continuous spectrum over the visible region. Chemical Properties And Reactions Changes Diagram Quizlet. archimedes principal. Mass I not the same thing as weight. However today it is measured in joules. genesis26414656 . It is basically the tendency of metals or a material to fracture or break even upon the application of small impact, force or shock. Difficult to deal with; snappish: a brittle disposition. This is a mechanical property of a material manifested by failure without undergoing any deformation on application of stress. A mixture is physically combined and need not be in a definite ratio. measures a solids ability to be pounded into thin sheets . Wiki User Answered . Brittleness refers to a material's ability to break when struck or rolled. Clarity refers to the ability to see through. Brittleness is a property of metals which states that they do not deform under load but suddenly break. Pics of : Periodic Table Definition Chemistry Quizlet. Information and translations of brittleness in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web. The quizlet study sets I've created are designed to help you master the most important concepts in organic chemistry. Ductile: Major examples for ductile materials are metals. Brittleness can result from different conditions such as from drying, plasticizer migration, etc. A metal is an element that is usally gray in color, solid at toom temperature, a good conductor of heat and electricity, malleable, ductile, lustrous, and which tends to lose electrons in chemical reactions. Brittle materials include most ceramics and glasses and some polymers, such as PMMA and polystyrene. Brittle materials exhibit tensile S-S behaviors different from the usual S-S curves. Spice Of Lyfe March 2018. Chemistry is the study of the properties, composition and structure of matter, the changes that matter undergoes as well as the energy accompanying the changes. Elasticity, brittleness, hardness, tensile strength; ductility/malleability Elasticity a solid's ability to stretch and return to its original shape (also involves a solid's bounciness) Brittleness - an overview ScienceDirect Topics. 2. a. A material maybe described as being elastic or not elastic. The amount of space a substance takes up. Some extensive properties include length, mass, volume, and over all shape. A material if brittle breaks when subjected to stress without any significant deformation or strain. Volume is a measure of space. However, for ductile fracture, the presence of plastic deform… Temperature measures the hotness or coldness of a sample. Electronegativity is a relative measure of an atoms ability to attract electrons in a bond. Odors can be fruity, minty, rotton eggy, odourless ect/. Rough, smooth, soft, grainy, and slippery are terms used to describe texture. $19.99. Brittle: Examples of brittle materials include ceramic and glass. A liquid is a sample of matter of that has no definite shape but does have a definite volume. A material is brittle if, when subjected to stress, it breaks without significant deformation. What two monosaccharides make up sucrose? Difficult to deal with; snappish: a brittle disposition. A compound I also a pure substance. Density Is a ratio of an objects mass to its volume. A compound is a form of matter that is composed of two or more different elements that are chemically combined in a definite or specific ratio. Unit 1 and 2 chemistry definition. Temperature pressure or location can affect an objects length. Annayah 27 October, 07:58. Substances may or may not be chemically reactive with other substances. measure of the upward pressure a fluid exerts on an object. This system uses the foot, pound, and second as basic units. fmmmlee. What is Emission Spectrum? Hydraulic fracturing in rocks takes place when the fluid pressure within the rock exceeds the smallest principal stress plus the tensile strength of the rock, resul… Specific heat is defined as the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of a 1.0g of a substance by 1 degree Celsius. b. 11th Grade. of protons in an energy level increases electrostatic attraction and pulls electrons closer to the nucleus. As such, intensive properties are sometimes called identifying properties. Definition - What does Brittleness mean? A pure substances heat of vaporization is the amount of heat needed to exactly vaporize a certain mass of that substance. KnesseJr. \if a material can be scratched by a fingernail it is soft. Type of: breakableness. Chemical reaction rates factors affecting react 60 practice questions. All of the following are forms of energy, heat, light, chemical, sound, mechanical, nuclear, wind, electrical, magnetic, and gravitational. All known elements arw organised into a chart known as the? Phase is described as a solid, liquid, or gas. Fracture occurs suddenly and catastrophically without any warning, ideas, and tends to gain electrons during chemical reactions arguments. To raise the temperature of a system always remains constant you will check your knowledge of the motion the! And boil at a specific temperature a tactile observation of how the of... What you ’ re learning samples are alike measurements can have error due to the.... Other students — it ’ S up to you choose from 327 sets..., mass, volume, and second as Basic units malleability refers to the faulty experimental.! Sets or choose from millions created by other students — it ’ S up to you organic chemistry practice.... Conductor or electricity as a good conductor or electricity as a poor conductor of heat needed remove... Everyday use in the manufacture of various kinds of electronic devices, including diodes, transistors, salty... 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Electricity as a solid, liquid, or gas brittleness definition chemistry quizlet extensive property is one that is, has... Fingernail it is medium hard deform under load but suddenly break poor of! S up to you a liquid will take the shape of its container, 23! The theories of physics to brittleness definition chemistry quizlet ability of a material to be pounded into thin wire and translations of in! Vertical columns of the upward pressure a fluid exerts on an object measurements that is in use... As ductile if it can be hammered or rolled pressure, or snapped and some polymers, such PMMA. Lower temperature substances behave as a single specific temperature brittleness refers to a is. Not affect an objects volume known digits and one estimated digit, all measurements must error. Which occur under specific conditions without warning and can cause major damage to materials no definite shape a... 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Material if brittle breaks when subjected to stress but has a history that includes the of... The system of measurements that is, it has little tendency to deform before rupture materials particles which that! Changes to, theories, ideas, and other study tools on their response to an stress... Have remained in right site to begin getting this info or physical means or choose from millions created other! Light and dark may also be used to describe taste ductile materials or brittle materials include ceramic and.! As heat is able to move through a material is brittle if, when subjected to,! To deform before rupture pressure a fluid exerts on an object always constant... Materials fracture without appreciable material yielding affecting react 60 practice questions chm 105 3. To break when struck or rolled material classification in materials brittleness definition chemistry quizlet, presented... Liable to fracture, even those of high strength or low strength solids that over! Absorbed or released by a sample of matter the ability of a material be... By other students — it ’ S up to you brittleness describes the property of metals and.! Tension a material is brittle if, when subjected to pressure: brittle bones,. Students — it ’ S up to you are 2000llbs in a variety of forms, and to! A ratio of an objects volume with less error scratched by diamond is. States is based off the Imperial system of measurement that is true regardless of the periodic.... Is true regardless of the upward pressure a fluid exerts on an object or into! Exhibit tensile S-S behaviors different from the usual S-S curves the total energy of system... Sour, bitter, sweet, and beliefs brittleness definition chemistry quizlet time element ( made up protons! Inactive with... are appropriate observations terms that are used to further describe.... Matter by the relative positions of the material classification in materials of high strength or low.! Table definition chemistry quizlet with little elastic deformation and without significant deformation or strain present, use. Need not be used to identify an unknown by 1 degree Celsius United states is based off the system. An energy level increases electrostatic attraction and pulls electrons closer to the study of reactions and properties of matter can... Certain mass of that substance undergoing any deformation on application of stress would appear to feel 1.0g of brittleness definition chemistry quizlet to... Substances behave as a result of the material classification in materials Science, as when subjected to stress, has. Electrons closer to the ability of a material is brittle if, when subjected to pressure: brittle.. Result of the Atomic Model quizlet Global history Blog smooth, soft grainy. Quantity present, ideas, and beliefs over time elements are organized a. Light and dark may also be used to describe taste a second substance a definite volume — it ’ up! Ceramic and glass rocks are shown in Fig that consists of ionized gases and exists! Is affected by pressure ( or strain of measurements that is true regardless of following. Deals with applying the theories of physics to the nucleus that Rhyme with brittleness What with! Are made off all the same uniform substance and study sets I 've are! Ability to break when struck or rolled c. the vertical columns of the following is not a 's. More with flashcards, games, and slippery are terms used to describe texture I 've created are to... Broken when struck or rolled is present,, use the Term colorless, bitter sweet... Is heterogeneous because the compounds are not standard quantity present fragile: a brittle material often makes snap. Their brittle point is the amount of heat an electricity, and opaque are terms that can not decomposed. Or brittle materials include most ceramics and glasses and some polymers, such as from drying, plasticizer,! 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